What Is Polyacrylamide PAM
Polyacrylamide PAM is a water-soluble linear polymer polymerized by free radical initiation of acrylamide monomer. As one of the most widely used varieties of water-soluble polymers, it has good flocculation properties and can reduce the frictional resistance between liquids. According to ionic properties, polyacrylamide can be divided into four types: Anionic Polyacrylamide APAM, Cationic Polyacrylamide CPAM , Non-ionic polyacrylamide NPAM and amphoteric polyacrylamide.
|Solid Content ,(%)||≥90||≥90||≥89|
|Molecular Weight, (million)||18~22 million||8~12 million||3-10 million|
|Hydrolyzing degree ,(%)||10~30||/||/|
|Effective pH value||7.0~14.0||1.0~14.0||1.0~8.0|
|Packing||Net 25kg / paper bag with inner plastic bag|
Mechanism of Action in Water Treatment
Adsorb pollutants. Polyacrylamide has strong adsorption capacity. It can purify water by adsorbing pollutants on its surface. PAM can adsorb pollutants quickly and has a remarkable effect. Especially for sewage rich in heavy metals, the adsorption capacity of PAM is more obvious.
Flocculation role. Sewage contains a large amount of suspended solids and colloidal substances, which are difficult to remove through traditional physical or chemical methods. Adding PAM chemical can aggregate these suspended and colloidal substances into larger clumps, thereby facilitating subsequent solid-liquid separation. Specifically, the molecular structure of PAM contains a large number of carbonyl groups and amino groups. These functional groups can form hydrogen bonds or electrostatic forces with ions or molecules in the water, causing the fine particles and colloidal substances suspended in the water to form larger clusters, thus reduce the amount of suspended solids and turbidity in water.
Catalyze oxidation reactions. By adding PAM, the oxidation reaction in the water can be accelerated, thereby reducing chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. This helps improve water cleanliness and prevents contamination of water bodies with pollutants rich in organic waste.
Antibacterial effect. PAM chemical can also inhibit the reproduction of bacteria and viruses in water bodies. This helps prevent water bodies from being contaminated by bacteria and viruses and ensures safe water quality.
What Are Main Applications of Polyacrylamide PAM
As a precipitant and flocculant, PAM chemical can aggregate fine particles suspended in water into large particles to facilitate subsequent sedimentation and filtration. In sewage treatment, the use of polyacrylamide can increase the utilization rate of water reuse cycle and can also be used for sludge dehydration. At the same time, polyacrylamide can also absorb organic matter and heavy metal ions in water to purify water quality. Therefore, it is widely used in urban sewage treatment, industrial wastewater treatment and other fields.
Polyacrylamide aqueous solution has high viscosity, good thickening, flocculation and rheology adjustment effects, and is used as oil displacement agent and drilling mud conditioner in oil production. As a water injection agent, in the middle and late stages of oil extraction, it can improve the physical properties of the reservoir and increase the crude oil recovery rate. Polyacrylamide can reduce the interaction between injected water and crude oil, reduce reservoir permeability, and increase water flooding effect. In addition, polyacrylamide can also be used as an additive in drilling fluids. It can increase the viscosity and lubricity of drilling fluid, reduce friction resistance during drilling, and improve drilling efficiency.
Polyacrylamide is mainly used in two aspects in the papermaking industry. One is to improve the retention rate of fillers, pigments to reduce the loss of raw materials and environmental pollution. The other is to improve the strength of paper. Adding polyacrylamide to the paper stock can improve the retention rate of fine fibers and filler particles, and accelerate the dehydration of the paper stock. The mechanism of action of polyacrylamide is that the particles in the slurry are flocculated and retained on the filter cloth through electrical neutralization or bridging. The formation of floc can also make the water in the slurry easier to filter out, reducing the loss of fiber in white water, reducing environmental pollution, and improving the efficiency of filtration and sedimentation equipment.
Polyacrylamide PAM can form a hydrophilic film on the surface of the fiber, increase the softness and comfort of the fiber, improve the tensile strength and wear resistance of the fiber, and extend the service life of the fabric. In addition, polyacrylamide can also be used as a film-forming agent in printing pastes to improve printing quality and fineness. Meanwhile, it has good adsorption capacity for stains on textiles, can effectively remove stains and improve the washing effect.